Version: 1.1.alpha.0

Best Practices

Here are some best practices for making your projects easier to build and simpler to maintain.

Use a Base stylesheet file

Create a _base.scss partial to initialize your stylesheets with common variables and (often) the framework utilities you plan to use:


$blueprint-grid-columns : 24;
$blueprint-grid-width   : 30px;
$blueprint-grid-margin  : 10px;
$font-color             : #333;

@import "compass/reset";
@import "compass/utilities";
@import "blueprint";

// etc.

The _base.scss file is also a great place to keep your own custom mixins, so they’re available to any stylesheet that includes it.

Then you can include this file in all other stylesheets:


@import "base";

#wrapper {
  @include container;

// etc.

It is important to define any compass/framework constants that you want to override in base.scss first, before @import-ing the framework files. See Working with Configurable Variables, for a specific example. Note that you can refer to _base.scss without the leading underscore and without the extension, since it is a partial.

Write your own Custom Mixins

Mixins let you insert any number of style rules into a selector (and its descendants!) with a single line. This is a great way to DRY up your stylesheet source code and make it much more maintainable. Using mixins will also make your stylesheet look like self-documented source code -- It’s much more obvious to read something like @include round-corners(6px, #f00) than the whole list of rules which define that appearance.

Presentation-free Markup

CSS was created to extract the presentational concerns of a website from the webpage content. Following this best practice theoretically results in a website that is easier to maintain. However, in reality, the functional limitations of CSS force abstractions down into the markup to facilitate the DRY principle of code maintainability. Sass allows us to move our presentation completely to the stylesheets because it lets us create abstractions and reuse entirely in that context. Read this blog post for more information on the subject.

Once you have clean markup, style it using Mixins and Inheritance. With clean and clear abstractions you should be able to read stylesheets and imagine what the webpage will look like without even loading the page in your web browser.

If you find your CSS is getting too bloated due to sharing styles between semantic selectors, it may be time to refactor. For instance this stylesheet will be unnecessarily bloated:

@mixin three-column {
  .container { @include container;  }
  .footer    { @include column(24); }
  .sidebar   { @include column(6);  }
  article    { @include column(10); }
  .rightbar  { @include column(8);  }
body#blog-post { @include three-column; }

Instead, ask yourself "what non-presentational quality do these pages share in common?" In this case, they are all pages of content, so it's better to apply a body class of "content" to these pages and then style against that class.

Nest selectors, but not too much.

It's easier to style a webpage from scratch or starting from some common base point for your application than it is to contend with unwanted styles bleeding into your new design. In this way, it is better to use some basic nesting of styles using some selector early in the markup tree. And then to refactor as patterns of use emerge to reduce bloat.

It's important to remember that long selectors incur a small rendering performance penalty that in aggregate can slow down your web page. There is no need to exactly mimic your document structure in your css. Instead nest only deep enough that the selector is unique to that part of the document. For instance, don't use table thead tr th when a simple th selector will suffice. This might mean that you have to separate your styles into several selectors and let the document cascade work to your advantage.